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假山是怎么制作的?

來源:  更新時間:2021-11-25
目前國內主流的水泥假山制作,根據制作工藝不同,可以分為兩種,分別是手工與模印。這兩種方法不同在于山體紋理的刻畫。手工制作方法是通過制作人員的經驗、想象力,手工制作假山的紋理;模印制作方法則是把事先準備好的山石紋理,直接印在假山上(此方法制作出來的假山比較呆板)。
At present, the mainstream cement rockery production in China can be divided into two types according to different production processes: manual and die printing. The difference between the two methods lies in the description of mountain texture. The manual production method is to manually make the texture of rockery through the experience and imagination of production personnel; The mold printing method is to directly print the prepared mountain stone texture on the rockery (the rockery produced by this method is relatively rigid).
一、制作骨架
1、 Make skeleton
假山骨架可以分為鋼骨架和磚骨架,一般情況下,中、大型的水泥假山,需要采用鋼骨架,室內、陽臺、庭院等小型假山可以采用磚骨架。
Rockery skeleton can be divided into steel skeleton and brick skeleton. Generally, medium and large cement rockeries need steel skeleton, and indoor, balcony, courtyard and other small rockeries can use brick skeleton.
1.鋼骨架制作:主材料為50×50×5角鋼,次要處用30×30×3角鋼,涂刷銹漆進行防銹處理。橫向及豎向均焊接間距為1.5米的井字型角鋼架,連接采用焊接方式;接觸外部鋼筋架部分,焊接剪刀支撐(加固)。鋼骨架的制作需要電焊工人
1. Fabrication of steel framework: the main material is 50 × fifty × 5 angle steel, 30 for minor parts × thirty × 3. Angle steel shall be painted with rust paint for rust prevention treatment. The well shaped angle steel frame with a spacing of 1.5m shall be welded horizontally and vertically, and the connection shall be welded; Contact the external reinforcement frame part and weld the scissors support (reinforcement). The fabrication of steel framework requires electric welders
2.磚骨架制作:用廢舊磚石材料砌筑起來,磚石砌筑的形狀大致與設計者設計的假山模型形狀差不多。為了節省材料,可在砌體內砌出內空的石室,然后用鋼筋混凝土板蓋頂,留出門洞和通氣口。當砌體胚形完全砌筑好后。
2. Brick skeleton making: it is built with waste brick and stone materials, and the shape of brick and stone masonry is roughly the same as that of the rockery model designed by the designer. In order to save materials, an empty stone chamber can be built in the masonry, and then the top can be covered with reinforced concrete slab, leaving door openings and vents. When the masonry embryo is completely built.
二、鋪設鋼絲網
2、 Laying steel wire mesh
水泥假山制作采用的鋼絲網一般為:6mm的網孔、絲徑在0.3-0.5mm之間更為合適。在骨架制作完成后,用Φ6圓鋼進行鋼絲網制作,鋼絲網方格控制在18×18-25×25cm2左右,根據模型塑造初凸凹起伏的自然外形。
The steel wire mesh used in the production of cement rockery is generally 6mm mesh, and the wire diameter between 0.3-0.5mm is more suitable. After the skeleton is made, use Φ 6. Steel wire mesh shall be made of round steel, and the steel wire mesh grid shall be controlled at 18 × 18-25 × About 25cm2, shape the natural shape of initial convex concave fluctuation according to the model.
在鋼絲網覆蓋假山后,將規格為3×1/4(4目)的鐵絲,將鋼絲網牢牢綁扎在假山骨架上。
After the steel wire mesh covers the rockery, the specification will be 3 × 1 / 4 (4 mesh) iron wire, firmly bind the steel wire mesh to the rockery skeleton.
假山鋼絲網鋪設完成后的圖片
Picture of rockery steel wire mesh after laying
三、山體抹灰
3、 Mountain plastering
掛水泥沙漿以成石脈與皺紋,水泥沙漿中可以加纖維性附加了以增加了表面抗拉的力量,減少裂縫。鐵絲綁扎完成,用混凝土砂漿進行基層抹灰,厚度1-1.5cm左右;一次完成后,進行二次抹灰,厚度為1.5cm左右。在假山外露部分的兩層抹灰完成后,及時進行假山內部砂漿的抹制,厚度為1cm左右。
Hang cement mortar to form stone veins and wrinkles. Fiber can be added to the cement mortar to increase the surface tensile force and reduce cracks. After the iron wire binding is completed, the base course shall be plastered with concrete mortar, with a thickness of about 1-1.5cm; After the primary plastering, the secondary plastering shall be carried out with a thickness of about 1.5cm. After the two layers of plastering of the exposed part of the rockery are completed, the mortar inside the rockery shall be plastered in time, with a thickness of about 1cm.
四、山體造型
4、 Mountain modeling
1.模具制作:
1. Mold making:
(1)選擇好自然山,先做表面的清理工作,做到表面無泥土雜質。
(1) Select the natural mountain and clean the surface first to ensure that the surface is free of soil and impurities.
(2)用固體蠟刷的過程中凝固和液體蠟流出空白以1:2的比例加熱熔化,刷于表面作為隔離劑。(要求均勻周到可刷兩次,但無蠟跡)
(2) During the process of solid wax brushing, the solidified and liquid wax flows out of the blank, is heated and melted in the ratio of 1:2, and is brushed on the surface as an isolating agent. (it shall be uniform and considerate, and can be brushed twice, but there is no wax mark)
(3)模具膠可采用聚銨脂膠甲、乙料配比1:1.5攪拌合成。用毛刷刷于山石表面(注意薄厚要均勻)
(3) The mold glue can be synthesized by stirring with the ratio of polyurethane glue a and B 1:1.5. Brush the rock surface with a brush (pay attention to uniform thickness)
(4)一層膠初凝時,用纖維布(剪成小塊,白色孔為0.2mm~0.25mm)粘在石上,
(4) During the initial setting of a layer of glue, stick it on the stone with fiber cloth (cut into small pieces with white holes of 0.2mm ~ 0.25mm),
然后再刷二層膠在纖維布(為了與第三層更好的結合),再刷第三層膠可刷厚一些,但不要露出布絲或布茬,要平整。這樣軟模就完成了。
Then brush the second layer of glue on the fiber cloth (for better combination with the third layer), and then brush the third layer of glue, which can be thicker, but do not expose the cloth wire or cloth stubble, and be flat. So the soft mold is finished.
2.假山紋理印制:
2. Rockery texture printing:
在印制假山紋理的時候,一定要掌握混凝土砂漿的“火候”,不能太干,也不能太濕,混凝土砂漿干至8成左右,印制假山紋理是佳時機。
When printing rockery texture, we must master the "fire" of concrete mortar, which can not be too dry or too wet. When the concrete mortar is dry to about 80%, printing rockery texture is a good time.
根據所塑山石的位置及其作用,選擇合適的氧化鐵顏料進行調制、上色。在塑石水分未干透時進行,基本色調用顏料粉和水泥加水拌勻,逐層灑染。上色步驟如下:
According to the position and function of the molded mountain stone, appropriate iron oxide pigment is selected for modulation and coloring. When the plastic stone is not completely dry, mix the basic tone with pigment powder and cement, add water, and sprinkle and dye layer by layer. The coloring steps are as follows:
(1)噴封閉底色;
(1) Spray closed background color;
(2)著一次色(3層);
(2) Primary color (3 layers);
(3)二次補色(陰暗色);
(3) Secondary complementary color (dark color);
(4)噴面油封色。
(4) Spray oil seal color.
在石縫孔洞或陰角部位略灑稍深的色調,待塑石九成干時,在凹陷處灑上少許綠、黑或白色等大小、疏密不同的斑點,以增強立體感和自然感。
Sprinkle a little darker color on the stone joint hole or internal corner. When the plastic stone is 90% dry, sprinkle a little green, black or white spots with different sizes and densities on the depression to enhance the three-dimensional and natural feeling.
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