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園林傳統藝術假山制作的種類有哪些?

來源:  更新時間:2021-12-08
假山,是我國園林中傳統藝術,已有兩千多年的歷史。它的制作要經過選料、筑池、疊山、裝飾四個階段來進行。選料:大型山石的制作,無論是硬質石料與軟質石料、不論是吸水與不吸水,都要求做到石料統一,規格統一(塊狀或條狀)。筑池:疊山理水,筑池是理水的一種手段。
Rockery, a traditional art in Chinese gardens, has a history of more than 2000 years. Its production should go through four stages: material selection, pool building, mountain folding and decoration. Material selection: for the production of large mountain stones, whether hard stones or soft stones, whether absorbing water or not, it is required to achieve the unity of stones and specifications (block or strip). Pond building: stacking mountains to manage water. Pond building is a means of managing water.
水是山的血脈,有水則靈。水池的式樣有多種。常見的是圓形,通常直徑在5至10米,深在80至120厘米;水深減除20厘米口沿,保持60厘米至100厘米;池底留有管道放水。疊山:假山不論是多體的(組合式),或單體的(孤峰式);它都是由主體(主峰)客體(客峰)襯體(矮山)三部分構成的。
Water is the blood of the mountain. Water is the spirit. There are many types of pools. It is usually round, usually 5 to 10 meters in diameter and 80 to 120 cm deep; Water depth minus 20 cm mouth edge, keep 60 cm to 100 cm; Pipes are reserved at the bottom of the tank for drainage. Stack mountain: rockery, whether multi-body (combined type) or single body (isolated peak type); It is composed of three parts: subject (main peak), object (guest peak) and lining (low mountain).
假山制作一般采納國畫中的高遠法和深遠法。高遠法:主體應排在前面左側或右側,若主體在左,客體即在右,形成開合式、一大一小、一高一矮、互相呼應。主峰挺拔險峻、后面山坡緩緩延伸,與后座襯體(遠山)形斷意連。
Rockery production generally adopts the lofty method and far-reaching method in traditional Chinese painting. High and far method: the subject should be arranged on the front left or right. If the subject is on the left, the object is on the right, forming an open and close type, one large and one small, one high and one low, echoing each other. The main peak is tall and steep, and the back hillside extends slowly, which is connected with the rear seat lining (distant mountain).
主峰聳立面前,形成開門見山欲先藏的手法,使人感到境界越大,對中部的山水景色產生"可見而又看不清"的誘惑力,使游人需要再移步往前看個究竟。深遠法:主體的高度比例和高遠法相同,其位置應排在中部左側或右側,客體擺在前面右側或左側。主客體一個錯前,一個錯后,遙相呼應,襯體在后。單體景物的多層結構,構成近(客體)中(主體)遠(襯體)景的各體層次,從而加強了正面的透視感,增加了景觀的深。山體總面積一般不超過水面的一半或少于一半。這樣,留下足夠的空白,給欣賞者留下聯想與想象的空間,達到"此處無景勝有景""虛中見實"的效果。
The main peak stands in front of you, forming a straightforward way to hide first, which makes people feel that the greater the realm is, the more attractive it is to the landscape in the middle, which makes visitors need to move forward to find out. Far reaching method: the height proportion of the subject is the same as that of the high and far method. Its position should be arranged on the left or right of the middle, and the object should be placed on the right or left in front. The subject and object echo each other from a distance, and the lining body is behind. The multi-layer structure of the single scene constitutes each body level of the near (object), medium (subject) and far (lining) scene, so as to strengthen the positive perspective and increase the depth of the landscape. The total area of the mountain is generally not more than half or less than half of the water surface. In this way, enough space will be left for the audience to associate and imagine, so as to achieve the effect of "no scenery here is better than scenery" and "seeing reality in emptiness".
"山借樹為衣,樹以山為骨",只有合理配置植物,山水才能有骨有肉,有形有神。通常選用姿態優美,葉小常綠,生長不旺,壽命很長,適應性強的植物。懸崖式假山應植些垂掛類植物。
"The mountain borrows trees as clothes, and the tree takes the mountain as bone". Only by reasonably configuring plants, can the landscape have bones, meat and God. Plants with beautiful posture, small and evergreen leaves, poor growth, long life and strong adaptability are usually selected. Cliff rockery should be planted with some hanging plants.
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